Isi nnyocha Lactoferrin

Lactoferrin (LF) bụ protein sitere n'okike nke dị na mmiri ara ehi mammali ma na-egosipụta akụrụngba mgbochi microbial. Kemgbe mmalite ya na 60s, enweela ọtụtụ ọmụmụ iji gosipụta uru ọgwụgwọ glycoprotein na ọrụ ya na ọgụ.

Agbanyeghi na umuaka nwere ike inweta ihe ndi ozo site n’inye ndi nne ha, lactoferrin uhere mepere emepe n’adiri ahia diri otutu oge.

1. Gịnị bụ Lactoferrin?

Lactoferrin (146897-68-9) bụ glycoprotein a na-ejikọ ọnụ nke ndị ezinụlọ Transferrin. Protein a bara ụba na mgbochi ma ọ dị na mmiri ara ehi ma nke ehi. E wezuga ya, ọ bụ mpụta nke ihe nzuzo dị iche iche dị ka anya mmiri, mmiri, imi mmiri, ihe ọ pancụ biụ na-egbu egbu, na ọnya. Ahụ ga -ewepụta onwe glycoprotein na nzaghachi nke mkpali mkpali.

Tupu ị nwee ike lactoferrin zụta, were akwukwo site na nkọwa a ka ị mara ma ihe mgbakwunye a kwesịrị ya.

Otutu lactoferrin dị na colostrum, nke bụ mmiri mmiri na-adọrọ adọrọ mbụ amịpụtara mgbe amuchara nwa. A na-ezo ya n’ime mmiri ara ehi n’ime ụbọchị abụọ mbụ ma ọ bụ atọ mbụ nke ịmụ nwa. Agbanyeghi na nzuzo nke colostrum na-abia nso, nnukwu lactoferrin ka ga-adi ma obu na mmiri aragharia.

Yabụ, kedu ka ị si ewepụta lactoferrin na colostrum bovine?

Kwe ka m duzie gị n'ụzọ kwụ ọtọ ị ga - ekewa lactoferrin.

Nzọụkwụ mbụ na-agụnye ikewapụ whey na mmiri ara ehi. Whey bụ mmiri mmiri na-amịpụta ma ọ bụ mmiri ara ehi na - ete. Usoro nkewapu onwe ya jiri chromatography na mmekorita hydrophobic na chromatography nke ion na-esochi site na ntinye ohuru na uzo nnu.

Costine na - enweta site na cows. Ọ bara ụba na protein, ọgwụ mgbochi ọrịa, mineral, vitamin, carbohydrates, na abụba. Pzọ ndị a agbadogola uru ọgwụgwọ nke colostrum, yabụ, na-adọta mmasị n'etiti ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị nyocha na ngalaba ahụike.

Nyere na ọdịnaya nke lactoferrin na-ebelata ka oge a na-amụba amụba, a na-atụ aro nwa ọhụrụ ahụ. Were, dịka ọmụmaatụ, ọgwụ LF na-ahụkarị ozugbo amụrụ nwa bụ ihe dịka 7-14mg / ml. agbanyeghị, ịta ahụ nwere ike wedata ihe dị ka 1mg / ml na mmiri ara ehi tozuru oke

Ọ bụrụ na ịchọrọ ịvelụrị n'okirikiri immunological lactoferrin, ị ga-etinye ego na mgbakwunye bostine colostrum.

A na-enweta lactoferrin ntụpọ maka azụmaahịa maka ngwaahịa colostrum bovine. Agbanyeghị, ngwaahịa a abụbu ihe metụtara ụfọdụ ndị o yiri ka ọ na-ewute ha na ọrịa ori ara na-agba ara. Biko, ka m mesie gị obi ike na ọnọdụ a dị ụkọ. E wezụga nke a, ụfọdụ nri nwa lactoferrin bụ extracts nke osikapa eji eji mkpụrụ ndụ ihe atụ emere, maka ndị na-anabataghị lactose.

Gịnị bụ Mmechi Enweghị ego nke Lactoferrin Maka Ndị okenye na ụmụ ọhụrụ

2. Kedu ihe kpatara eji eji Lactoferrin ntụ dị ka ihe mgbakwunye, Uru Lactoferrin bara?

Ijikwa Acne

Cutibacterium na propionibacterium bụ maka ọtụtụ ihe otutu. Lactoferrin na - ewepu nje bacteria ndị a ma belata mmetụta ha.

N'ọnọdụ ụfọdụ, usoro radieshon na mkpụrụ ndụ oxygen na-emeghachi omume na-enye mmerụ ahụ nke mkpụrụ ndụ na mbibi DNA. N'ihi nrụgide oxidative, mbufụt nwere ike ịdata na mmetụta nke uto nke ihe otutu. Dabere na ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị na-eme nchọpụta, lactoferrin bụ ihe nwere ike egbochi oxidant, yabụ, ike nke ịlụ ọgụ maka radicals n'efu.

Iwere lactoferrin tinyere vitamin E na zinc ga –ebelata ogwugwo oria na comedones ihe dika onwa ato.

E wezụga nke ahụ, mbufụt na-ebute ọnya ọgbụgba na cysts ozugbo site na imechi pares. Ngwongwo ihe mgbochi nke lactoferrin na-ekwe nkwa ọgwụgwọ nke ọnya na ngwa ngwa.

Ndi n ’okacha mmuta mere ka ekwuputa n’ezie na aru ike gita bu aru gi. Iji maa atụ, ọ bụrụ na eriri afọ gị na-adị iberiibe ma ọ bụ na-adịghị mma, na-eji ụdị ntutu ihu niile ma ọ bụ probiotics nke ụwa agaghị edozi ọnya akpụkpọ ahụ, egwuregwu, ma ọ bụ eczema. Iwere lactoferrin ga-ewepu ụmụ nje na - emerụ ahụ na ngịga ma na-akwalite ọrụ nke Bifidus flora.

Ewezuga ịgwọ ọnya, lactoferrin belatara ihe mgbaàmà nke psoriasis ma mee ka ọ gbakee site n’ọrịa ọnya akwara ozi, bụ nke jupụtara n’etiti ndị ọrịa nwere ọrịa shuga.

Onye nnọchi anya nke microbial

Onu ogugu emere gosiri na Lactoferrin (LN) gbochiri nje virus, nje, nje na oria fungal ka ha ghara ibuso aru ya agha. onyinye ahụ na-arụ ọrụ site na ijikọ ụmụ nje ndị a, na-emebi ihe dị n'ime ụlọnga ha, na igbochi ndị nabatara ekwentị.

N'otu nnyocha, ndị sayensị chọpụtara na lactotransferrin (LTF) dị mma karịa igbochi nje herpes karịa nke mmadụ. Na nyocha nke vitro na-egosikwa na mgbakwunye a na-achịkwa mmetụta nke HIV.

N'ime obere usoro onyonyo dị elu, ọrụ lactoferrin jikwaa virulence nke ịba ọcha n'anya C. dika Nchoputa Hepatology, ọgwụgwọ a na-eme ka ngosipụta nke interleukin-18 pụta, protein na-eme ka ọ daa ọrịa nje Hepatitis C. Maka ịrụ ọrụ kachasị arụ, ndị ọrịa kwesịrị ị takeụ ihe dị ka gram 1.8 ruo 3.6 kwa ụbọchị. Ihe kpatara ya bu na obere lactoferrin ga-eme ka enweghi ihe di n’ime ihe a na-ahu anya.

Enwere ntule, nke na-atụle LF dị ka ọgwụgwọ maka ọrịa helicobacter pylori. Mgbe ị na-emejuju mmeju ahụ na ọgwụgwọ ọnya afọ gị, Ohere inweta bụ na ọgwụ ndị ahụ ga-aba uru. Nkwupụta a abụrụla esemokwu nke ọkpụkpụ n'etiti ndị na-eme nchọpụta n'ihi na ọtụtụ na-ekwenye na ojiji lactoferrin ntụ ntụ ga-abụ ihe na-abaghị uru ma ọ bụrụ na enweghị usoro ọgwụ.

Usoro nke Metabolism Iron

Lactoferrin ọ bụghị nanị na-edozi oke nke iron n'ime ahụ kamakwa ọ ga-eme ka mmụba ya dịkwuo elu.

Enweela ọmụmụ ihe na - aga n'ihu nyocha nke chọrọ iji atụnyere arụmọrụ nke LF megide ọgwụ na - eme ka ikuku na - adịghị mma n'oge ana - amụ nwa. Site na nnwale ahụ, lactoferrin gosipụtara ike karịa n'ịgbapụta nguzobe haemoglobin na mkpụrụ ndụ ọbara uhie.

Mụ nwanyị na-eri glycoprotein nwere ọkwa iron kacha mma ma ọ nweghị mmetụta efu. Lactoferrin na - arụ ọrụ iji belata ohere ime ọpụpụ, ịmụmụ amụ tupu amụ nwa, na obere amụrụ amụ dị ala.

Ya mere, o doro anya na ọ bụ ezigbo mgbakwunye maka nne dị ime na ụmụ nwanyị toro afọ ịmụ nwa na-efunahụ ụfọdụ iron mgbe ha nọ n’agha. Ndị anaghị eri anụ na ndị na-enye ọbara ọbara ugboro ugboro nwekwara ike irite uru site na nri lactoferrin.

Healthy Gastrointestinal Tract

Cartoferrin nwa agbakwunye detoxifies ma na-eme gut ahụike. Ọ na-ewepu nje na-emerụ ahụ, nke na-akpata mbufụt. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, ụmụ nje ndị a na-ekwu maka ọtụtụ ihe gbasara eriri afọ na enterocolitis, nke na-emebi mgbidi eriri afọ nke na-eduga n'ọgbọ. Ọ bụrụ na n'ihi ihe ụfọdụ, nwa gị anaghị ackụ ara, a na-atụkarị aro ka ị gbanwee ka ọ bụrụ lactotransferrin (LTF).

Gịnị bụ Mmechi Enweghị ego nke Lactoferrin Maka Ndị okenye na ụmụ ọhụrụ

3. Uru Baratoferrin nyere nwa ahụ

Ihe ndị ọzọ a na-ahụ n’ọkpụrụkpụ Cartoferrin na-egbochi uto ụmụ irighiri ihe na afọ nke ụmụ amụrụ ọhụrụ. Micromụ nje ndị a gụnyere Escherichia coli, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Staphylococcus Albus, Candida albicans, na Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ọtụtụ nnyocha na-akwado eziokwu ahụ bụ na ị aụ ọgwụ lactoferrin buru ibu kwa ụbọchị na-ebelata ohere nke eriri afọ gasị na ụmụ ọhụrụ.

N’agba aka, LF na - akwalite mmụba nke mkpụrụ ndụ endothelial ebe ha na - ekwupụta uto nke ihe dị na akwara lymphatic. Ya mere, ọ bịara pụta ìhè na ịgbakwunye lactoferrin nwere ike ịbụ ndenye ọgwụ maka imi afọ mebiri emebi.

Ụ nwa bụ isi ihe eji eme ka ụmụ nwoke ghara ịonụ. Agbanyeghị, ndị dọkịta na-awa ahụ na-atụ aro na ịgbakwunye mgbakwunye ígwè dị mkpa ebe ọ bụ na mmiri ara nwere obere nke mineral.

Kwe ka m kọwaa ihe kpatara na LF bụ ezigbo mgbakwunye maka ụmụaka na-amụkarị nwa na ụmụ amụrụ na ha amụghị obere. Ọtụtụ mgbe, otu a na - enyekarị mmụọ ọrịa ụkọ akwara. Minhazi ihe ndozi umu nwanyi lactoferrin ga - eme ka haemoglobin na sel ọbara di uhie n’etiti usoro nwa. Ọzọkwa, ọmụmụ na-ekpughe na mgbakwunye ígwè na-akwalite mmepe akwara ozi nke nwa ọhụrụ.

N'oge ụfọdụ, nje na-emerụ ahụ dịka E.coli na-eri nri na iron dị na akwara afọ. La were lactoferrin ga-anapụ ụmụ nje nke iron ma mebie ya ebe ị na-ahụ na onye nnabata ahụ na-enweta mineral niile dị.

LF na-arụ ọrụ dị egwu na mmepe nke sistem nke nwa. Usesfọdụ n'ime iji ọgwụ lactoferrin ntụ ntụ gụnyere mmụba nke ọrụ macrophages, immunoglobulins, mkpụrụ ndụ NK, na T lymphocytes, bụ ndị na-ahụ maka ọgụ mgbochi ọhụhụ. Kedu ihe ọzọ, ijikwa LF na-ebelata ohere ịza ahụhụ.

4. Kedu ka Lactoferrin si melite sistemụ ịlụ ọgụ?

Media n'etiti Ada Ada na Innate Immune Function

Maka azịza nke ebumpụta ụwa, lactoferrin na-eme ọtụtụ ụzọ. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, ọ na-eme ka mkpụrụ ndụ nke sel ihe na-egbu egbu dị mma (NK) na neutrophils. Protein ahụ na-akwalite phagocytosis ma na-akpata mmụba nke macrophages.

Maka nzaghachi na-agbanwe agbanwe, LF na-enyere aka na mgbakwunye nke mkpụrụ ndụ T-sel na B-mkpụrụ ndụ. N'ihe banyere mgbaàmà mkpali, ọrụ ebumpụta ụwa na ọrụ mmegharị ahụ ga-ejikọ ọnụ iji merie ihe omume.

Lactoferrin na - achịkwa mmepụta nke cytokines pro-inflammatory na interleukin 12, nke na-egosipụta ihe nchebe iji gbochie ọrịa nje intracellular.

Ndị ọka iwu na Sistem Ọrịa Mmeme Ahụ (SIRS)

Ọrụ nke ntụ ntụ lactoferrin n'ibelata ụdị oxygen (ROS) na - emeghachi omume abụrụla ihe dị mkpa n'ịmụta ihe metụtara mmekọ ya na mmepe kansa. Mmụba na ROS na-atụgharị gaa n'ihe egwu dị elu nke ọnọdụ mkpali n'ihi apoptosis ma ọ bụ mmerụ ahụ.

Ọgụ A Na-emegide Microorganisms

Ngwongwo mgbochi nke microbial nke lactoferrin belata oria, nje, nje, na oria fungal.

Besmụ nje na-eme nke ọma ma dabere na ígwè maka uto na nlanarị. Mgbe ha wakporo onye nnabata ahụ, LF na-egbochi ikike ha nwere iji ígwè rụọ ọrụ ha.

N'oge usoro mbu ọrịa, lactoferrin (LF) na-eme iji gbochie nnabata mba ọzọ n'ụzọ doro anya. Protein a ga - egbochi ndị nabatara ekwentị ma ọ bụ jikọtara ya na nje, yabụ na-egbochi ịbanye n'ụlọ ọrụ ahụ. Ihe ndị ọzọ na - egbochi microbial nke lactoferrin gụnyere imebi ụzọ nke pathogen ma ọ bụ igbochi metabolism ha.

Ọtụtụ nnyocha na-akwado ntụ ntụ lactoferrin iji na njikwa nke nje Herpes, nje HIV, ịba ọcha n'anya C na B, influenza, na hantavirus. Na mgbakwunye, mgbakwunye ahụ gbochiri ịba ụba nke alphavirus, rotavirus, papillomavirus mmadụ, na ọtụtụ ndị ọzọ.

N'ụfọdụ, Lactoferrin nwere ike ghara iwepụ ọrịa niile mana ị ga - ejide n'aka na ọ ga - belata ogo nke nje virus dị ugbua. Na ihe omumu ndi gara aga, LF enweputara oganihu na mgbochi SARS pseudovirus Ebe ọ bụ na SARS-CoV-2 dara n'otu klas dị ka SARS-CoV, enwere ike na lactoferrin nwere ike belata virulence nke COVID-19.

Ọ bụ ezie na ọgwụ ndị metụtara ọgwụ na-ekwusi ike na ịkwalite ọrụ ọgụ gị anaghị echebe mmadụ pụọ na coronavirus, ịgbakwunye lactoferrin ga-enyere aka n'ọgụ ahụ. E kwuwerị, otu ndị ọrụ ahụ achọpụtala na ndị agadi na ndị nwere obere ọrịa nwere nnukwu ihe ize ndụ nke ibute COVID-19.

5. Lactoferrin ntụ ntụ na-eji na Ngwa

Lactoferrin ntụ ntụ dị maka ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị na ndị ọkà mmụta chọrọ ịchọpụta oke ọgwụ ya n'ahụ ahụ mmadụ. Ọ nwere atụmanya sara mbara na mgbochi ọrịa, nri ndị na-edozi ahụ, nri na ọgwụ ọgwụ, na ịchọ mma.

Maka nyocha gị na nyocha nyocha, hụ na ị ga-esi nweta onyinye ahụ site na ndị na-eweta lactoferrin ntụ ntụ dị mma.

Lactoferrin uzuzu were na mmiri ara ehi ntụ

Nwa ntụ ntụ nke nwa ọhụrụ na-akawanyewanye mma iji nwughari ihe ọmụmụ nke ezigbo mmiri ara ara si nne. Lactoferrin bụ sọ ọnụ ọgụgụ abụọ kachasị n'ụba n'ime mmiri ara nne. Ọ bụ ihe ewu ewu maka iweta ụdị uru dị iche iche na nwa ahụ gụnyere ịkpụkọta ígwè maka mgbochi, mgbochi ọrịa kansa yana ịkwalite ọkpụkpụ dị mma n'etiti ndị ọzọ.

Lactoferrin bụ ihe dị n'ime mmiri nne nne nke ejiri mara colostrum. A na-ahụkarị ụrọ dị mililita abụọ na mmiri ara ara zuru oke. Nke a bụ iji gosi na ụmụ obere ụmụaka chọrọ lactoferrin dị elu maka mmepe kachasị mma.

A na-akwado mmeziwanye na usoro ahụ nwata na-egbochi nsogbu ụmụaka site na Lactoferrin n'ụdị usoro nke nwa ọhụrụ. Ihe protein ahụ na-arụ ọrụ dị mkpa na sistem nke nwatakịrị ma na-anọchite anya usoro mgbochi mbu na usoro nchekwa microbial. A na - ebute ihe kachasị na - egbochi nje microbial, nke bụ ihe dị mkpa maka uto nje. E wezụga nke ahụ, a na-ahụkarị lactoferrin ka ọ bụrụ ọgwụ antioxidant nke nwere ike iwusi mmeghachi omume ọgụ site na ime ka ọdịiche, ịmụba, na ịgbalite mkpụrụ ndụ na-alụso ọrịa ọgụ.

Gịnị bụ Mmechi Enweghị ego nke Lactoferrin Maka Ndị okenye na ụmụ ọhụrụ

6. Mmetụta Lactoferrin

Nchedo nke LF pivots na ihe ole na ole.

Nnukwu ego Lactoferrin nwere ike ịbụ chancy. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, mgbe mgbakwunye bụ usoro nke mmiri ara ehi, ị nwere ike jiri obi ike rie ya nnukwu ego otu afọ. Agbanyeghị, mgbe ngwaahịa ahụ sitere na osikapa, ohere ị ga-enwe bụ na ịdoụbiga ihe ókè karịa izu abụọ ga - apụ n'anya ụfọdụ.

Ahụkarị lactotransferrin (LTF) nsonaazụ gụnyere;

  • afọ ọsịsa
  • Loss nke agụụ
  • Akpụkpọ ahụ akpụkpọ
  • ntachi
  • Egwu

N'adịghị ka ọtụtụ ọgwụ, ọgwụ lactoferrin adịghị mma maka ndị na-atụ anya na ndị nne na-enye nwa ara.

Zọfere nsonaazụ lactoferrin, a na-atụ aro usoro onunu ogwu n'etiti 200mg ruo 400mg. You ga-ewere ya maka ọnwa abụọ ma ọ bụ atọ na-aga n’ihu. N'ọnọdụ ndị a na-adịghị ahụkebe, oge ahụ nwere ike iru ọnwa isii.

7. Onye nwere ike irite uru na Lactoferrin?

Nne

Lactoferrin na-abara ma nne na nwa ya uru.

N'ime oge mmeme, inye ihe mmezi a ga-enwe ọmarịcha ogo etu nwa ebu n’afọ na ogo ịmụ ya. Ọ bụrụ na nne gara n’ihu ị withụ lactoferrin n’oge a na-enye nwa ahụ, mmiri ara ya ga-aka nke ọma. Ọzọkwa, nwa ahụ ga-anya isi na agba na -eme ahụ ahụ dị mma.

Antsmụ ọhụrụ na ụmụ na-enweghị ara

Ihe mgbakwunye lactoferrin na-ahụ na nwa ọhụrụ tolitere sistemụ dị ike ma na-echebe ọnya afọ dị ala pụọ ​​na allergens. Na mgbakwunye, mgbakwunye ahụ na-arụ ọrụ dị ka ọgwụ mgbu, na-enyere aka na bowel nke mbụ nwa ọhụrụ. Usoro umu aka ndi bara ụba na agba na-enweta site n'aka ndi na-enye ubochi ure obodo obodo na nke ntaneti.

Ọdịmma Iron

Ihe mgbakwunye Lactoferrin na-abawanye ọkwa nke hemoglobin, sel ọbara ọbara, na ferritin. Ọ bụ ezie na ọtụtụ ndị mmadụ na-eji sọlfọ na-eme ihe iji gbochie ụkọ iron, ọtụtụ nnyocha nyocha na-akwado na lactoferrin nwere ike karịa.

Ọ bụrụ na ị bụ onye anaghị eri anụ ma ọ bụ na-enye onyinye ọbara ugboro ugboro, ị ga-achọ nri ndị bara ụba nke iron iji mejupụta ọkwa hemoglobin na ferritin dị ala. Ma ọ bụghị ya, ịnwere ike ịme ezigbo lactoferrin ịzụta n'aka ndị na-ere ahịa n'ịntanetị.

Ndị mmadụ na-anaghị enwe ọunityụ

Lactoferrin na-agbachitere ahụ pụọ n'ọrịa ndị na-efe efe site na imechi ụmụ nje na-efe efe na igbochi mmụba nke nje na nje. Ngwakọta ahụ na-arụsi ọrụ ike na modu nke ụzọ mgbaàmà nke ọrụ maka ileba anya na azịza mgbochi nke onye ọbịa.

Lactoferrin na-arụ ọrụ dị ka onye ogbugbo, na-egbochi ma na-ahazi mmekọrịta dị n'etiti ọrụ nkwụghachi na ebumnuche ebumpụta ụwa. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, ọ na-eme ka ọrụ phagocytic dịkwuo elu site na mbuli nke neutrophils na macrophages. Maka usoro e ji alụso ọrịa ọgụ, ihe a na - eme ka mkpụrụ ndụ T na sel (B) na - eto eto, na- ekwuputa ihe mgbochi sel na oke mkpali.

8. Lactoferrin na IgG

Dị ka lactoferrin, IgG ma ọ bụ immunoglobulin G bụ protein na-egbochi microbial dị na mmiri ara ara.

Enwere otutu nnyocha iji kọwaa njikọ dị n'etiti lactoferrin na IgG.

Ntinye lactoferrin na colostrum dị elu karịa nke IgG. Dabere na ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị na-eme nchọpụta, ọtụtụ ihe na-emetụta ọnụọgụ protein ndị a na mmiri ara ehi.

Dịka ọmụmaatụ, lactoferrin na IgG na-enwe mmetụta na-ekpo ọkụ ma na-ere ya. Immunoglobulin G nwere ike iguzogide ọgwụgwọ okpomoku ruru 100 Celsius ma mana naanị sekọnd ole na ole. N'aka nke ọzọ, lactoferrin ji nwayọ belata site na mmụba okpomọkụ ruo mgbe ọ ghasịrị kpamkpam na 100 Celsius.

Asingdabere n'isi ihe ndị a, ị ga-achọpụtala na oge na ikpo ọkụ bụ ihe kachasị mkpa mgbe ị na-edozi mmiri ara ehi. Ebe ọ bụ na mmiri ara ehi ịracha mmiri ara ehi abụrụla mgbagha, ọtụtụ mmadụ na-ekpebi ịkpọ nkụ.

Ịta nke Lactoferrin (146897-68-9) nọ n'ọnụ ọgụgụ ya mgbe ọ mụsịrị nwa. Ka oge ọmụmụ ya na-abawanye, protein a na - eji nwayọ belata, ikekwe ọ bụ n'ihi mbelata agba. N’aka nke ọzọ, ọdịda nke ọkwa nke immunoglobulin G fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ nke a na-eleghara oge niile a na-enye nwa ara.

Agbanyeghị na lactoferrin dị ukwuu na-ada na mmiri ara ehi mammali, itinye uche ya ka ga-adị elu karịa nke IgG. Eziokwu a ka bụ ma ọ bụrụ na agba, na mgbanwe, ma ọ bụ na mmiri ara ehi tozuru oke.

References

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